世界大自然宪章  2008年 联合国大会通过

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世界大自然宪章19821028目联合国大会通过)

World Charter for Nature

 

世界自然宪章大会,
 

    重申联合国的基本宗旨,特别是维持国际和平与安全、发展各国间友好关系和进行国际合作以解决经济社会文化技术知识人道方面的国际问题等宗旨,


    认识到:

    (a)
人类是自然的一部分,生命有赖于自然系统的功能维持不坠,以保证能源和养料的供应;
    (b)
文明起源于自然,自然塑造了人类的文化,一切艺术和科学成就都受到自然的影响,人类与大自然和谐相处,才有最好的机会发挥创造力和得到休息与娱乐。

    深信:

    (c)
每种生命形式都是独特的,无论对人类的价值如何,都应得到尊重,为了给予其他有机物这样的承认,人类必须受行为道德准则的约束;
    (d)
人类的行为或行为的后果,能够改变自然,耗尽自然资料,因此,人类必须充分认识到迫切需要维持大自然的稳定和素质,以及养护自然资源。

    确信:

    (a)
从大自然得到持久益处有赖于维持基本的生态过程和生命维持系统,也有赖于生命形式的多种多样,而人类过度开发或破坏生境会危害上述现象;


    (b)
如果由于过度消耗和滥用自然资源以及各国和各国人民间未能建立起适当的经济秩序而使自然系统退化,文明的经济、社会、政治结构就会崩溃;

    争夺稀有的资源会造成冲突,而养护大自然自然资源则有助于伸张正义和维持和平,但只有在人类学会和平相处、摒弃战争和军备以后才能实现。
    重申人类必须学会如何维持和增进他们利用自然资源的能力,同时保证能够保存各种物种和生态系统以造福今世和后代。
    坚信有必要在国家和国际、个人和集体、公共和私人各级上采取适当措施,以保护大自然和促进这个领域内的国际合作。
    为此目的,兹通过本《世界自然宪章》,宣布下列养护原则,指导和判断人类一切影响自然的行为。


      一、一般原则

  1
.应尊重大自然,不得损害大自然的基本过程。


  2
地球上的遗传活力不得加以损害;不论野生或家养,各种生命形式都必须至少维持其足以生存繁衍的数量,为此目的
应该保障必要的生境。


  3
.各项养护原则适用于地球上一切地区,包括陆地海洋;独特地区、所有各种类生态系统的典型地带、罕见或有灭绝危险物种的生境,应受特别保护。


  4
.对人类所利用的生态系统和有机体以及陆地、海洋和大气资源,应设法使其达到并维持最适宜的持续生产率,但不得危及与其共存的其他生态系统或物种的完整性。


  5
.应保护大自然,使其免于因战争或其他敌对活动而退化。



      二、功

  6
.在决策过程中应认识到,只有确保自然系统适当发挥功能,并遵守本《宪章》载列的各项原则,才能满足人类的需要。


  7
.在规划和进行社会经济发展活动时,应适当考虑到养护自然是这些活动的一个组成部分。


  8
.在制定经济发展、人口增长和提高生活水平的长期计划时,应适当考虑到自然系统须确有使有关人口的生存和居住的长期能力,同时认识到这种能力可能通过科学和技术加以提高。


  9
.应计划地分配地球上各地区作何用途,并应适当考虑到有关地区的实质限制、生物生殖率和多样性以及自然美。


  10
.自然资源不得浪费,应符合本《宪章》载列的原则,按照下列规则有节制地加以便用:


    (a)
生物资源的利用,不得超过其天然再生能力;


    (b)
应采取措施保持土壤的长期肥力和有机分解作用,并防止侵蚀和一切其他形式的退化,以维持或提高土壤的生产率;


    (c)使用时并不消耗的资源,包括水资源,应将其回收利用或再循环;
  (d)使用时会消耗的不可再生资源,应考虑到这些资源是否丰富,是否有可能合理地加以加工用于消费,其开发与自然系统的发挥功能是否相容等因素而有节制地开发。

  11
.应控制那些可能影响大自然的活动,并应采用能尽量减轻对大自然构成重大危险或其他不利影响的现有最优良技术,特别是:


    (a)
应避免那些可能对大自然造成不可挽回的损害的活动;


    (b)
在进行可能对大自然构成重大危险的活动之前应先彻底调查;这种活动的倡议者必须证明预期的益处超过大自然可能受到的损害;如果不能完全了解可能造成的不利影响,活动即不得进行;


    (c)在进行可能干扰大自然的活动之前应先估计后果,事先尽早研究发展项目环境的影响;如确定要进行这些活动,则应周密计划之后再进行,以便最大限度地减低可能造成的不利影响;

    (d)
农、牧、林、渔业的活动应配合各自地区的自然特征和限制因素;


    (e)
因人类活动而退化的地区应予恢复,用于能配合其自然潜力并符合受损害居民福利的用途。


  12
.应避免向自然系统排放污染物:


    (a)
如不得不排放污染物,应使用最佳的可行方法,于产生污染物的原地加以处理;


    (b)
应采取特殊预防措施,防止排放放射性或有毒废料。


  13
.旨在预防、控制或限制自然灾害、虫害和病害的措施,应针对这些灾害的成因,并应避免对大自然产生有害的副作用。



      三、实

  14
.本《宪章》载列的各项原则应列入每个国家的以及国际一级的法律中,并予实行。


  15
.有关大自然的知识应以一切可能手段广为传播,特别是应进行生态教育,使其成为普通教育的一个组成部分。


  16
.所有规划工作都应将拟订养护大自然的战略、建立生态系统的清单、评估拟议的政策和活动对大自然的影响等列为基本要素;所有这些要素都应以适当方式及时公告周知,以便得到有效的咨商和参与。


  17
.应提供必要的资金、计划和行政结构以实现养护大自然的目的。


  18
.应经常努力进行研究以增进有关大自然的知识,并不受任何限制地广为传播这种知识。


  19
.应密切监测自然过程、生态系统和物种的状况,以便尽早察觉退化或受威胁情况,保证及时干预,并便利对养护政策和方法的评价。


  20
.应避免进行损及大自然的军事活动。


  21
.各国和有此能力的其他公共机构、国际组织、个人、团体和公司都应:


    (a)
通过共同活动和其他有关活动,包括交换情报和协商,合作进行养护大自然的工作;


    (b)
制定可能对大自然有不利影响的产品制作程序的标准,以及议定评估这种影响的方法;


    (c)实施有关的养护大自然和保护环境的国际法律规定;

    (d)
确保在其管辖或控制下的活动不损害别国境内或国家管辖范围以外地区的自然系统;


    (e)
保护和养护位于国家管辖范围以外地区的大自然。


  22
.在充分照顾到各国对其自然资源主权的情形下,每个国家均应通过本国主管机构并与其他国家合作,执行《宪章》的各项规定。


  23
.人人都应当有机会按照本国法律个别地或集体地参加拟订与其环境直接有关的决定;遇到此种环境受损或退化时,应有办法诉请补救。


  24
.人人有义务按照本《宪章》的规定行事;人人都应个别地或集体地采取行动,或通过参与政治生活,尽力保证达到本《宪章》的目标和要求。

 

 

  英文原文:

World Charter for Nature
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Having considered the report of the Secretary-General on the revised
draft World Charter for Nature,
 
     Recalling that, in its resolution 35/7 of 30 October 1980, it expressed
its conviction that the benefits which could be obtained from nature depended
on the maintenance of natural processes and on the diversity of life forms and
that those benefits were jeopardized by the excessive exploitation and the
destruction of natural habitats,
 
     Further recalling that, in the same resolution, it recognized the need
for appropriate measures at the national and international levels to protect
nature and promote international co-operation in that field,
 
     Recalling that, in its resolution 36/6 of 27 October 1981, it again
expressed its awareness of the crucial importance attached by the
international community to the promotion and development of co-operation aimed
at protecting and safeguarding the balance and quality of nature and invited
the Secretary-General to transmit to Member States the text of the revised
version of the draft World Charter for Nature contained in the report of the
Ad Hoc Group of Experts on the draft World Charter for Nature, as well as
any further observations by States, with a view to appropriate consideration
by the General Assembly at its thirty-seventh session,
 
     Conscious of the spirit and terms of its resolutions 35/7 and 36/6, in
which it solemnly invited Member States, in the exercise of their permanent
sovereignty over their natural resources, to conduct their activities in
recognition of the supreme importance of protecting natural systems,
maintaining the balance and quality of nature and conserving natural
resources, in the interests of present and future generations,
 
     Having considered the supplementary report of the Secretary-General,
 
     Expressing its gratitude to the Ad Hoc Group of Experts which, through
its work, has assembled the necessary elements for the General Assembly to be
able to complete the consideration of and adopt the revised draft World
Charter for Nature at its thirty-seventh session, as it had previously
recommended,
 
     Adopts and solemnly proclaims the World Charter for Nature contained in
the annex to the present resolution.
 
 
                                    ANNEX
                           World Charter for Nature
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Reaffirming the fundamental purposes of the United Nations, in particular
the maintenance of international peace and security, the development of
friendly relations among nations and the achievement of international
co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social,
cultural, technical, intellectual or humanitarian character,
 
     Aware that:
 
     (a)  Mankind is a part of nature and life depends on the uninterrupted
functioning of natural systems which ensure the supply of energy and
nutrients,
 
     (b)  Civilization is rooted in nature, which has shaped human culture and
influenced all artistic and scientific achievement, and living in harmony with
nature gives man the best opportunities for the development of his creativity,
and for rest and recreation,
 
     Convinced that:
 
     (a)  Every form of life is unique, warranting respect regardless of its
worth to man, and, to accord other organisms such recognition, man must be
guided by a moral code of action,
 
     (b)  Man can alter nature and exhaust natural resources by his action or
its consequences and, therefore, must fully recognize the urgency of
maintaining the stability and quality of nature and of conserving natural
resources,
 
     Persuaded that:
 
     (a)  Lasting benefits from nature depend upon the maintenance of
essential ecological processes and life support systems, and upon the
diversity of life forms, which are jeopardized through excessive exploitation
and habitat destruction by man,
 
     (b)  The degradation of natural systems owing to excessive consumption
and misuse of natural resources, as well as to failure to establish an
appropriate economic order among peoples and among States, leads to the
breakdown of the economic, social and political framework of civilization,
 
     (c)  Competition for scarce resources creates conflicts, whereas the
conservation of nature and natural resources contributes to justice and the
maintenance of peace and cannot be achieved until mankind learns to live in
peace and to forsake war and armaments,
 
     Reaffirming that man must acquire the knowledge to maintain and enhance
his ability to use natural resources in a manner which ensures the
preservation of the species and ecosystems for the benefit of present and
future generations,
 
     Firmly convinced of the need for appropriate measures, at the national
and international, individual and collective, and private and public levels,
to protect nature and promote international co-operation in this field,
 
     Adopts, to these ends, the present World Charter for Nature, which
proclaims the following principles of conservation by which all human conduct
affecting nature is to be guided and judged.
 
                            I.  GENERAL PRINCIPLES
 
     1.   Nature shall be respected and its essential processes shall not be
impaired.
 
     2.   The genetic viability on the earth shall not be compromised; the
population levels of all life forms, wild and domesticated, must be at least
sufficient for their survival, and to this end necessary habitats shall be
safeguarded.
 
     3.   All areas of the earth, both land and sea, shall be subject to these
principles of conservation; special protection shall be given to unique areas,
to representative samples of all the different types of ecosystems and to the
habitats of rare or endangered species.
 
     4.   Ecosystems and organisms, as well as the land, marine and
atmospheric resources that are utilized by man, shall be managed to achieve
and maintain optimum sustainable productivity, but not in such a way as to
endanger the integrity of those other ecosystems or species with which they
coexist.
 
     5.   Nature shall be secured against degradation caused by warfare or
other hostile activities.
 
                                II.  FUNCTIONS
 
     6.   In the decision-making process it shall be recognized that man's
needs can be met only by ensuring the proper functioning of natural systems
and by respecting the principles set forth in the present Charter.
 
     7.   In the planning and implementation of social and economic
development activities, due account shall be taken of the fact that the
conservation of nature is an integral part of those activities.
 
     8.   In formulating long-term plans for economic development, population
growth and the improvement of standards of living, due account shall be taken
of the long-term capacity of natural systems to ensure the subsistence and
settlement of the populations concerned, recognizing that this capacity may be
enhanced through science and technology.
 
     9.   The allocation of areas of the earth to various uses shall be
planned, and due account shall be taken of the physical constraints, the
biological productivity and diversity and the natural beauty of the areas
concerned.
 
     10.  Natural resources shall not be wasted, but used with a restraint
appropriate to the principles set forth in the present Charter, in accordance
with the following rules:
 
     (a)  Living resources shall not be utilized in excess of their natural
capacity for regeneration;
 
     (b)  The productivity of soils shall be maintained or enhanced through
measures which safeguard their long-term fertility and the process of organic
decomposition, and prevent erosion and all other forms of degradation;
 
     (c)  Resources, including water, which are not consumed as they are used
shall be reused or recycled;
 
     (d)  Non-renewable resources which are consumed as they are used shall be
exploited with restraint, taking into account their abundance, the rational
possibilities of converting them for consumption, and the compatibility of
their exploitation with the functioning of natural systems.
 
     11.  Activities which might have an impact on nature shall be controlled,
and the best available technologies that minimize significant risks to nature
or other adverse effects shall be used; in particular:
 
     (a)  Activities which are likely to cause irreversible damage to nature
shall be avoided;
 
     (b)  Activities which are likely to pose a significant risk to nature
shall be preceded by an exhaustive examination; their proponents shall
demonstrate that expected benefits outweigh potential damage to nature, and
where potential adverse effects are not fully understood, the activities
should not proceed;
 
     (c)  Activities which may disturb nature shall be preceded by assessment
of their consequences, and environmental impact studies of development
projects shall be conducted sufficiently in advance, and if they are to be
undertaken, such activities shall be planned and carried out so as to minimize
potential adverse effects;
 
     (d)  Agriculture, grazing, forestry and fisheries practices shall be
adapted to the natural characteristics and constraints of given areas;
 
     (e)  Areas degraded by human activities shall be rehabilitated for
purposes in accord with their natural potential and compatible with the
well-being of affected populations.
 
     12.  Discharge of pollutants into natural systems shall be avoided and:
 
     (a)  Where this is not feasible, such pollutants shall be treated at the
source, using the best practicable means available;
 
     (b)  Special precautions shall be taken to prevent discharge of
radioactive or toxic wastes.
 
     13.  Measures intended to prevent, control or limit natural disasters,
infestations and diseases shall be specifically directed to the causes of
these scourges and shall avoid adverse side-effects on nature.
 
                             III.  IMPLEMENTATION
 
     14.  The principles set forth in the present Charter shall be reflected
in the law and practice of each State, as well as at the international level.
 
     15.  Knowledge of nature shall be broadly disseminated by all possible
means, particularly by ecological education as an integral part of general
education.
 
     16.  All planning shall include, among its essential elements, the
formulation of strategies for the conservation of nature, the establishment of
inventories of ecosystems and assessments of the effects on nature of proposed
policies and activities; all of these elements shall be disclosed to the
public by appropriate means in time to permit effective consultation and
participation.
 
     17.  Funds, programmes and administrative structures necessary to achieve
the objective of the conservation of nature shall be provided.
 
     18.  Constant efforts shall be made to increase knowledge of nature by
scientific research and to disseminate such knowledge unimpeded by
restrictions of any kind.
 
     19.  The status of natural processes, ecosystems and species shall be
closely monitored to enable early detection of degradation or threat, ensure
timely intervention and facilitate the evaluation of conservation policies and
methods.
 
     20.  Military activities damaging to nature shall be avoided.
 
     21.  States and, to the extent they are able, other public authorities,
international organizations, individuals, groups and corporations shall:
 
     (a)  Co-operate in the task of conserving nature through common
activities and other relevant actions, including information exchange and
consultations;
 
     (b)  Establish standards for products and manufacturing processes that
may have adverse effects on nature, as well as agreed methodologies for
assessing these effects;
 
     (c)  Implement the applicable international legal provisions for the
conservation of nature and the protection of the environment;
 
     (d)  Ensure that activities within their jurisdictions or control do not
cause damage to the natural systems located within other States or in the
areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction;
 
     (e)  Safeguard and conserve nature in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
 
     22.  Taking fully into account the sovereignty of States over their
natural resources, each State shall give effect to the provisions of the
present Charter through its competent organs and in co-operation with other
States.
 
     23.  All persons, in accordance with their national legislation, shall
have the opportunity to participate, individually or with others, in the
formulation of decisions of direct concern to their environment, and shall
have access to means of redress when their environment has suffered damage or
degradation.
 
     24.  Each person has a duty to act in accordance with the provisions of
the present Charter; acting individually, in association with others or
through participation in the political process, each person shall strive to
ensure that the objectives and requirements of the present Charter are met.