中国、蒙古国草原（Steppe）对比考察项目 相关图片 论文集
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* 资助项目： 中蒙国际合作项目联合资助（2007-2009）
Changes of Systems about Grassland Using and Ownership in Inner Mongolia
Institute of social science in Inner Mongolia
1 Grassland Using System
Grassland degeneration and desertification in Inner Mongolia are became a fact. Grassland degradation is related to grazing system’s unreasonable, it is occupied a significant position. In the long term, peoples scientifically evaluate and inherit grazing system and existed prejudice and error in the cognition. Inner Mongolia has given up rotational grazing and livestock management system, at the same time nomadic culture is also disappeared. Technical policy of efficient and reasonable is a adjustment about complex system of grassland and livestock, economic and technical, culture and organization. In the history experience, our grazing and one technique replaced to grazing system of synthesis, complex, diversity and autonomy. Decision of grazing strategy will respect natural discipline, succession discipline of system and knowledge of traditional experience, and find combining site between traditional experience and modern science. Suitable grazing system will pay attention to basic principle. The principle included historical legacy, clear property, decision of livestock with grass, ecological monitoring, positioning on local conditions and ensure rotational grazing.
2 Grassland Property Systems
It is existed problem in the grassland property system, problems are following: first, “public land tragedy”. Second, “personnel land tragedy” conflict between livestock and grassland management. If we will resolve “public land tragedy”, we need to clear boundary of grassland property (fencing grazing among household). Grassland using right will be contracted with family and it will resolve the above problems. Because people and livestock are more, grassland area is smaller, landscape, grassland level, road and water resources are imbalance, it will lead to following two reasons.
2.1 In the many regions, grassland has been divided to family in the name. In fact, it is very difficulty, and lead to deprivation of big family on small and without livestock family,” public land tragedy” is still existed.
2.2 ” personnel land tragedy”
(1) In the many regions, family grassland of small area can not satisfy grass reproduction and condition of rotational grazing. It is an important reasons of grassland desertification and degeneration.
(2) We can not resist plunder of country or personnel capitalism, it lead to differences of rich or poor.
(3) It destroyed “grassland five livestock” and complementation, coordination system of ecological. It blocked using way of livestock on different season and nutrition, different livestock on different grassland type, different livestock on same grassland. Finally it lead to simplifies of grassland type and breeding stock structure or negative succession of grassland community.
(4) Because they can not reasonably use water resources ( river, lake, ground water and surface water) and increase cost of animal husbandry(dig a deep well, it will spend about 100 thousand RMB. )
(5) It will
accelerate disappear of nomadic culture. Because nomadic economics is
basis of ecological knowledge and nomadic culture of nomadic peoples
(poem, music, dance, painting, literature, custom et al).
study grassland management system in the country and how to establish coordination system of news about collective and microeconomic, grassland using. It respect complex management system of individual and collective property. For example, main functions is monitoring of grassland ecological system and main function of collective or community is scientifically using and management on public grassland. Individual or family scientifically use contracting grassland.
(1)Robbed grazing, abused grazing and excessive grazing are more serious.
Because grassland using right is not clearly fixed, grassland using method is a problem of grassland management among the banner, countryside and village. Result of Hongtutala summer camp showed that eight family is resided in the 178 thousand mu grassland, livestock is about 50 thousand, 116 thousand sheep units (60 sheep/100 mu, < 1 mu/sheep). The phenomenon is existed in whole banner, it lead to grassland desertification and degeneration.
(2) Seasonal grazing is an unreasonable.
Blue banner mainly carry out two seasons rotational grazing, grassland area under the settled grazing is less, it about account for 1.4% of using grassland area. Grassland using unreasonable is two parts under two seasons rotational grazing. First, two seasons rotational grazing is not rotate grazing between summer and winter camp. Winter camp is used 250 days, from beginning of October to medium of June. Summer camp is used 110 days, from medium of June to beginning of October. The grazing way bring about unfavorable effects on grass nutrition’s accumulation and grass safely hibernate (weak of grass viability, decreasing of productivity). Second, two seasons camp area is not reasonable. Summer camp area is about 2700 thousand mu, winter camp area is about 8000 thousand mu, winter and summer area ratio is 3:1. Stocking rate is 3 mu/ sheep units in the whole banner, some villages stocking rate is 1-2 mu/ sheep units, because summer camp area is less ,stocking rate is higher, grazing intensity is bigger, it effected grassland develop and degeneration. Degeneration area is about 2400 thousand mu, account for 86.6% in the whole area. Light, moderately and severe degeneration area ratio separately are 35.2%, 31.2%,20.2%.
Keywords: Inner Mongolia; Using system; Property system; Changes
* foundation item：International cooperative project between China and Mongolia（2007-2009）
** Author profile：Aorenqi（1957-）male，researcher, institute of social science in Inner Mongolia, Email:firstname.lastname@example.org