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2009
中蒙国际合作项目乌兰巴托双边会议    

研究报告论文集 (中国部分)   

 

 
 

内蒙古放牧场利用制度与草原产权制度之变迁

敖仁其

内蒙古社会科学院

摘要:

第一部分  放牧场利用制度

内蒙古草原退化、沙化己成为不争的事实。在导致草原退化的诸多原因中,放牧制度不合理占有突出和显著的地位。长期以来,对科学地评价、继承传统放牧制度中科学合理成份,有认识上的偏见和误区,其中包括放弃了有利于牧草再生的轮牧制度,维系与草原共生的畜群管理制度等游牧制度中科学合理的成份。这一进程也伴随着悠久独特的游牧文化的逐渐消失。一个有效的、合理的放牧技术策略是对一个多样化的、动态的草畜复合系统、经济和技术复合系统、文化和体制复合系统的调控。从历史的经验看,我们在政策制定和政策选择中常常以一种放牧模式或单线技术进化思想取代综合性、复杂性、多样性和自主性放牧技术策略选择问题。放牧技术策略的制定要尊重自然规律、尊重制度演化规律、尊重传统经验知识并努力探寻传统经验知识同现代科学的结合点。设计合理的放牧制度要关注一些基本原则。这些基本原则应包括:传承历史,明晰产权;以草定畜,生态监控;因地制宜,确保轮牧。

第二部分   草原产权制度

草牧场产权制度权存在的问题: 一是公地悲剧论;二是牲畜私有户养与草牧场规模经营之间的矛盾,所谓私地悲剧。解决“公地悲剧论”或牲畜户养与草场规模经营之间矛盾的基本逻辑推理只要明确草牧场产权界线(家家户户围栏放牧):草牧场使用权承包到户就能很好地解决上述问题。殊不知,由于人口多、牲畜多,户均草牧场面积小,加之地貌、草原等级、牧道、水源等外部环境分布不均衡,导致两种结果,

一、不少地区草场名义上化分到户,事实上很难做到,并导致大户对小户、无畜户草场资源的事实上的剥夺,“公地悲剧论” 仍然存在。

二、所谓“私地悲剧”:

1、不少地区承包到户的草牧场由于面积过小不能满足牧草再生轮牧的起码规模条件,造成对草牧场的强度、重复利用,成为草牧场沙化、退化的重要原因之一。

2.难以抗衡来自国家或外来私有大资本对草原资源的垄断或掠夺,威胁当居民的生计,拉大贫富差局。

3.破坏了草原五畜与草原生态系统的互补、协调机制,阻断了畜群对不同季节、不同营养成分牧草的利用模式,不同种畜对不同草地类型的利用模式,不同畜种对同一草地类型的复合利用模式,最终导致草地类型与畜种结构的单一化或草原生物群落的逆向演替。

4.不能合理、均衡地利用现有草原水资源,(包括河流、湖泊、地下水和地表水),增加了草原畜牧业成本(如在无水草场打深水井,其成本少致10多万元。熟不知无水草场是冬季最好的放牧场)。

5.加速游牧文化的消失。因为游牧经济是游牧人的生态智慧和游牧文化(诗歌、音乐、舞蹈、绘画、文学、习俗等)产生的根基。要想突破公地悲剧私地悲剧,制度设计的缺陷,当然不能全盘否定草牧场承包制度在明晰产权制度方面的功绩,而问题的核心是要设计一种产权制度:即规避传统经济的产权模糊和公共地悲剧,又要保证草原牧区的基本生态特征非平衡草原生态系统所必然要求的轮牧休牧制度。我们需要深入要研究国家层面上草原管理(包括执行和监控主体)制度如何与集体经济、个体经济在管理和合理使用草牧场方面建立有效传递信息的协调机制,即建立(分工明确的)在不同层面上尊重(或相互制约的)个体产权、集体产权和国家宏观管理权威的复合管理体系。例如,国家的主要职能是对草原生态系统的监控,集体或社区的主要职能是对公共草场公平、科学利用和管理,个体或家庭是对以承包草场的科学、合理利用。

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* 资助项目: 中蒙国际合作项目联合资助(2007-2009

** 作者简介:敖仁其(1957-)男,内蒙古社会科学院,研究员,Email:aorenqi@soho.com

 

Changes of Systems about Grassland Using and Ownership in Inner Mongolia

Aorenqi

Institute of social science in Inner Mongolia

Abstract:

1 Grassland Using System

Grassland degeneration and desertification in Inner Mongolia are became a fact. Grassland degradation is related to grazing system’s unreasonable, it is occupied a significant position. In the long term, peoples scientifically evaluate and inherit grazing system and existed prejudice and error in the cognition. Inner Mongolia has given up rotational grazing and livestock management system, at the same time nomadic culture is also disappeared. Technical policy of efficient and reasonable is a adjustment about complex system of grassland and livestock, economic and technical, culture and organization. In the history experience, our grazing and one technique replaced to grazing system of synthesis, complex, diversity and autonomy. Decision of grazing strategy will respect natural discipline, succession discipline of system and knowledge of traditional experience, and find combining site between traditional experience and modern science. Suitable grazing system will pay attention to basic principle. The principle included historical legacy, clear property, decision of livestock with grass, ecological monitoring, positioning on local conditions and ensure rotational grazing.

2 Grassland Property Systems

It is existed problem in the grassland property system, problems are following: first, “public land tragedy”. Second, “personnel land tragedy” conflict between livestock and grassland management. If we will resolve “public land tragedy”, we need to clear boundary of grassland property (fencing grazing among household). Grassland using right will be contracted with family and it will resolve the above problems. Because people and livestock are more, grassland area is smaller, landscape, grassland level, road and water resources are imbalance, it will lead to following two reasons.

2.1 In the many regions, grassland has been divided to family in the name. In fact, it is very difficulty, and lead to deprivation of big family on small and without livestock family,” public land tragedy” is still existed.

2.2 ” personnel land tragedy”

(1) In the many regions, family grassland of small area can not satisfy grass reproduction and condition of rotational grazing. It is an important reasons of grassland desertification and degeneration.

(2) We can not resist plunder of country or personnel capitalism, it lead to differences of rich or poor.

(3) It destroyed “grassland five livestock” and complementation, coordination system of ecological. It blocked using way of livestock on different season and nutrition, different livestock on different grassland type, different livestock on same grassland. Finally it lead to simplifies of grassland type and breeding stock structure or negative succession of grassland community.

(4) Because they can not reasonably use water resources ( river, lake, ground water and surface water) and increase cost of animal husbandry(dig a deep well, it will spend about 100 thousand RMB. )

(5) It will accelerate disappear of nomadic culture. Because nomadic economics is basis of ecological knowledge and nomadic culture of nomadic peoples (poem, music, dance, painting, literature, custom et al).

If we will want to breakthrough ”public land tragedy” and “personnel land tragedy”, defect of system designing is merit of contracting system on grassland property system, we mainly design a property system: it will evade property unclear of traditional economical and “public land tragedy”, assure basic ecological characteristics of grassland
rotational grazing of imbalance ecological system stop breed. We need to

study grassland management system in the country and how to establish coordination system of news about collective and microeconomic, grassland using. It respect complex management system of individual and collective property. For example, main functions is monitoring of grassland ecological system and main function of collective or community is scientifically using and management on public grassland. Individual or family scientifically use contracting grassland.

(1)Robbed grazing, abused grazing and excessive grazing are more serious.

Because grassland using right is not clearly fixed, grassland using method is a problem of grassland management among the banner, countryside and village. Result of Hongtutala summer camp showed that eight family is resided in the 178 thousand mu grassland, livestock is about 50 thousand, 116 thousand sheep units (60 sheep/100 mu,  < 1 mu/sheep). The phenomenon is existed in whole banner, it lead to grassland desertification and degeneration.

(2) Seasonal grazing is an unreasonable.

Blue banner mainly carry out two seasons rotational grazing, grassland area under the settled grazing is less, it about account for 1.4% of using grassland area. Grassland using unreasonable is two parts under two seasons rotational grazing. First, two seasons rotational grazing is not rotate grazing between summer and winter camp. Winter camp is used 250 days, from beginning of October to medium of June. Summer camp is used 110 days, from medium of June to beginning of October. The grazing way bring about unfavorable effects on grass nutrition’s accumulation and grass safely hibernate (weak of grass viability, decreasing of productivity). Second, two seasons camp area is not reasonable. Summer camp area is about 2700 thousand mu, winter camp area is about 8000 thousand mu, winter and summer area ratio is 3:1. Stocking rate is 3 mu/ sheep units in the whole banner, some villages stocking rate is 1-2 mu/ sheep units, because summer camp area is less ,stocking rate is higher, grazing intensity is bigger, it effected grassland develop and degeneration. Degeneration area is about 2400 thousand mu, account for 86.6% in the whole area. Light, moderately and severe degeneration area ratio separately are 35.2%, 31.2%,20.2%.

Keywords: Inner Mongolia; Using system; Property system; Changes

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* foundation itemInternational cooperative project between China and Mongolia2007-2009

** Author profileAorenqi1957-maleresearcher, institute of social science in Inner Mongolia, Email:aorenqi@sohu.com