中国、蒙古国草原(Steppe)对比考察项目   相关图片  论文集

 主页-中文主页- 中蒙项目 第一期 -

         

 

2009中蒙国际合作项目乌兰巴托双边会议     

研究报告论文集 (中国部分)   

 

 
 

蒙古高原草原steppe法律制度比较研究 ( )  

 土地所有权属演变对天然草原生态环境的影响

陈继群        

曾经草原网站  中国 北京

  2007-2008年中国、蒙古国联合考察团对两国干旱草原(STEPPE)进行了自然和社科对比考察。本文以中国内蒙古样区(东苏旗和东乌旗)近十年来的放牧方式、土地产权变化进行研究,以蒙古国为参照系研究习惯法与成文法,重点研究中国内蒙古现存天然草原地区土地权属和管理的演变对天然草原生态环境的影响。 以期对两国的法律制度背景和相应的管理方法对两国干旱草原样区的生态变化和传统游牧文化发展趋势造成的影响作出对比分析。

   研究结果表明蒙古高原天然草原生态环境状况和气候条件是蒙古高原2000年来游牧方式、游牧文化以及习惯法成文法的环境背景和基础;蒙古干旱草原(STEPPE)气候干旱、寒冷,年降水量100-300mm(图1)。全年50%以上时间植被为枯草被或冰雪覆盖。所有游牧民人畜,以及野生动物半年左右依靠故态水(雪)生存,牧民放养的牲畜每年8个月依靠枯草维持生命。原生植物生长期约100天左右(6月、7月、8月),在蒙古高原北部地区无霜期不足70天,这期间进入地表土和植物根系的水量,是植物生长速率的决定因子,也是维持草原生态系统健康发展的决定因子。图2表明草原地表水占用比例是极少的。其主要作用是由于维持草原湿地生态系统水分平衡。这些气候条件是蒙古高原2000年来游牧方式、游牧文化以及习惯法成文法的环境背景和基础。

 对《成吉思汗法典》研究表明,这是由成吉思汗亲自制定或认可的一部法典,是成吉思汗治理国家的主要手段。即使在他离世后,这部法典依然在蒙古族政权和社会生活的各个方面发挥着重要的作用。

 对20世纪80-90年代,中国和蒙古国法律对比研究表明,两国在不同时期都分别修订了宪法,开始了新的改革的尝试。但是法律制定的理念、内容和效果都存在极大的差异。

 目前中国内蒙古自治区干旱草原地区双法并行(土地管理法、草原法),两法都有合法性,分别发放了不同的产权证,导致土地产权主体不清。由于规则不确定,执法、司法和管理机构出现重复设置。目前内蒙古草原地区产权主体模糊的权益现状,不能够体现法律的作用,又危害了牧民的利益,持续和加重了草原荒漠化,改革目前的草原法律制度,势在必行。

研究认为蒙古高原草原法律制度的完善和改革是目前防治内蒙古草原荒漠化的重要内容,是传承蒙古民族习惯法和成文法的精髓,按照自然科学的基本原理制定合理的现代草原法律,是保护草原防治草原荒漠化的主要保证。


关键词:草原(steppe)生态,法律-习惯法和成文法,土地所有权

——————————

*资助项目:中蒙国际合作项目联合资助

**作者简介:陈继群(1947-)男,职业画家,曾经草原网站(NGO)站长,主要从事草原环境保护研究

Website: http://cyngo.net    Email:  jiqunchen2002@yahoo.com

 

Comparatively Study of Legal System in Mongolian Plateau

—Effects of Evolution in land ownership on Grassland Ecological Environment 

Jiqun   Chen

           'Echoing Steppe' Website   Beijing  China             


Abstract:
Comparatively study on natural and social sciences between China and Mongolia 2007-2008.We studied grazing and changes of land property right in Inner Mongolia (Eastern Sunite Banner and Eastern Wuzhumuqin Banner) over the past decade. According to Mongolia, I mainly studied effects of evolution in land ownership on grassland ecological environment and comparatively study on Legal system and management method about effect of ecological changes and development tendency of nomadic culture.    

The result showed that ecological environment and climatic conditions are basis of nomadic grazing, nomadic culture, customary and statute law over the past two thousand years. Climate is dry and cold, annual precipitation is 100-300mm (Fig.1) in Mongolia Grassland. Mongolia grassland is covered by withered grass or snow more than 50% of the time all the years. Nomadic peoples and wild animals depended on snow to survive, livestock depend on withered grass and span eight month every year to sustain life. Vegetation period is about 100 days (Jun. Jul. Aug.), frost free period is less 70 days in the north of Mongolia. Water content of topsoil and plant root is determinative factor of plant growth and ecological development. The result showed that grassland mainly rely on water of wetland ecological system, surface water is rare (Fig.2).

The result of
Genghis Khan code showed that it is a code of Genghis Khan himself making or recognition and a management method of country. The code played an important role about Mongolian regime and social life.

Comparatively study of law between China and Mongolia during the age of 80-90, 20th century. The result showed that two countries separately revised the constitution and attempt to reform in different age. It is existed very differences about ideas, contents and effects of law decision.

At present, Inner Mongolia grassland have existed two laws (land management law and grassland law). The two laws separately existed validity and provided certificate of title, it result in unclear of
land property right. Because regulation is uncertainty, it has existed repetition setting in the law enforcement, justice and management agency. At present, main part of property right is unclear, it can not embody function of law, endangered benefit of herdsman, continued and made more serious desertification of grassland. Grassland law system’s innovation is imperative.

The result showed that important contents of prevent desertification in Inner Mongolia grassland about perfection and reformation of law system in Mongolian plateau. It will lineage essence of customary and statute law. According to basic principle of natural sciences, and determine modern grassland law, it is a main guarantee about prevention of grassland desertification.  


Key words: Grassland ecology; Customary and statute law; Land ownership

——————————

*Financing projects: China and Mongolia cooperation Project

**Author introduction: Jiqun Chen1947-maleprofessional artistNGO station agentstudy on protection of grassland environment   Website: http://cyngo.net        Email:    jiqunchen2002@yahoo.com