中国、蒙古国草原(Steppe)对比考察项目   相关图片  论文集

 主页-中文主页- 中蒙项目 第一期

 

2009中蒙国际合作项目乌兰巴托双边会议            

研究报告论文集 (中国部分)

 

 
 


草原牧区放牧制度对牧民生计影响的实证研究

——内蒙古典型草原荒漠化比较社会调查报告

冯静蕾盖志毅1  奥仁其2  巴图布音3

    1内蒙古农业大学 ; 2内蒙古社会科学院;  3蒙古科学院

:内蒙古草原是中国北方草原牧区的典型区域。内蒙古草原退化、沙化己成为不争的事实。对于草原荒漠化的成因,目前所形成的共识是自然因素和人为因素共同作用的结果。在导致草原退化的诸多人为因素中,放牧制度占有突出和显著的地位。放牧制度作为制度体系主要由两个层面构成。一是以政府为主体的宏观放牧管理制度,二是牧户为主体的微观放牧方式。放牧制度微观与宏观两个层面具有互动性。这种互动性直接作用的结果表现为草场的生态环境质量和牧民生计的变化,而牧民生计的稳定是草原畜牧业发展和草原可持续利用的基础。因此研究放牧制度对牧民生计的影响,对寻求草原退化及恢复的深层次原因具有重要意义。本研究基于对内蒙古锡林郭勒4个嘎查的调查,系统阐述内蒙古牧区放牧方式的变迁过程,分析牧户放牧方式及生计的现状,分别从宏观、微观层面研究放牧制度对牧户生计的影响,尝试以牧民生计为切入点,探求放牧制度对草原退化作用的内在机理。研究认为: 宏观放牧管理制度和微观的放牧方式对牧户的生计都会产生影响。在放牧制度对牧户生计的影响机制中,宏观放牧管理制度发挥了主导作用,一方面直接对牧民的生计产生影响,另一方面通过影响微观放牧方式对牧民的生计产生间接影响。同时现有的牧区放牧管理制度制定未能系统地考虑生态保护和牧民生计的关系,从而使基于恢复草原生态的草地利用管理政策成效不理想。因此,从宏观层面来讲,放牧管理制度的设计和制定应考虑不同地区牧户生态和经济条件的差异性、多样性,为牧户放牧方式的改进提供有弹性、相互配套的制度保障。从微观层面来讲,合理的放牧方式一定是在经验观察基础上的、本土化的放牧制度与模式。

关键词:放牧管理制度;放牧方式;牧民生计

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* 资助项目:中蒙国际合作项目联合资助(2007-2009

** 作者简介:冯静蕾(1973-)女,内蒙古农业大学经济管理学院讲师,牧区生态经济在读博士

 

Empirical Study of the Impaction of Grazing System on Herders livelihood in Prairie Areas ------  Investigation Report of Inner Mongolia

              Fengjinglei1,Gaizhiyi1, ,Aorenqi2, Batbuyan3,

1.Inner Mongolia Agriculture University, Huhhot

2.Institute of Social Sciences in Inner Mongolia ,Huhhot

3.Institute of Geography, Academy of Sciences, Mongolia

 Abstract: Inner Mongolia is China's northern grasslands of the typical pastoral region. Inner Mongolia grassland degradation, desertification has become an indisputable fact.  Grassland desertification is the results caused by natural factors and human factors .  Grazing system is the significant factor among many human factors. Grazing system mainly constituted by two levels: One level is the macro-grazing management system of Government, Another level is the micro-grazing method of herders .Two levels of Grazing system interactive . The outcome of this interaction represent the changes of ecological environment and the livelihood of herds. The stability of the livelihood of herds is the basis of sustainable use of grassland. It is Significance to study the impaction of Grazing system on herders livelihood for seeking the deep-seated reasons of grassland degradation . Based on the study of four Village in Xilinguole survey, This paper introduced the changes process of Grazing system in Inner Mongolia Pastoral areas and studied the status of Grazing methods and the livelihood of herding households ,then this paper analyzed the impaction of grazing system on the livelihood of herders from the macro-, micro-level and try to explore the inherent mechanism of grazing system impacting on grassland degradation .Result showed that both of Macro- grazing systems and micro-grazing method all have impact on the livelihoods of herders, but Macro-grazing management system has played a leading role in Grazing System . Grazing management systems in pastoral areas is not systematically consider the relationship between the d ecological protection and the livelihood of pastoralists , So that the effectiveness of grass-use management policies is unsatisfactory. This paper suggested the design of Grazing management system should consider the differences and diversity of ecological and economic conditions on different regions and provide an institutional guarantee for herders to improve grazing methods. Reasonable Grazing methods must be localization of the grazing system and the model based on the observation of experience.

Key Words: Grazing Management System ; Grazing Methods; Herders Livelihood

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* foundation itemInternational cooperative project between China and Mongolia2007-2009

** Author ProfileFengjinglei1973-FemaleDr. Reading, Email:nmgfjl@sina.com