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2009中蒙国际合作项目乌兰巴托双边会议   

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论内蒙古牧区五种资本的不平衡性

盖志毅1 冯静蕾1 巴图布音2 奥仁其3 陈继群4

1内蒙古农业大学;2蒙古科学院;3内蒙古社会科学院;4曾经草原网站     

 

摘要:资本及其实际形态的变化过程一直是经济学研究的核心范畴。对于资本的理解,绝大多数学者形成了三点共识:第一,资本一定会给其拥有主体带来价值的提升,这包括财富的增多,地位的提高,声誉的上升,健康的拥有和身心的愉悦等;第二,资本的概念日益丰富,已经远远突破了物质资本的范畴,增加了诸如人力资本、文化资本、人际资本、政治资本,甚至社会资本和自然资本等;第三,各类资本之间有着密切的关系,比如物质资本是其他资本的物质基础,其他资本要借助于物质资本来实现积累。五种资本共同构成了社会经济发展的基础,因此研究牧区五种资本的现状及其相互关系,对于牧区生态、经济、社会和谐发展具有重要意义。本文在对3年来在蒙古国和中国内蒙古牧区的资料归纳整理的基础上,对牧区物质资本、人力资本、文化资本、人际资本、政治资本进行了总结分析。得出以下结论:内蒙古牧区五种资本存在不平衡性。其中物质资本的不平衡性突出表现在两个方面:一是牧民群体的收入水平增长速度下降,与其他群体呈现出一种不平衡性;二是牧区牧户之间出现两极分化,牧户之间呈现出一种不平衡性。人力资本的不平衡性表现为与内地相比,牧民受教育程度低、观念陈旧、市场意识淡薄,接受新知识的能力弱。与蒙古国的牧民相比表现为教育程度低、整体年龄偏大。文化资本的不平衡性表现为牧民群体在市场竞争和全球一体化的背景下,与内地文化的差异造成的不平衡性,同时还表现为在牧区土著的牧民与后来牧民的不平衡性。人际资本的不平衡性既表现为牧民群体的人际资本与其他群体相比,人际资本少,又表现为牧民群体内部人际资本的不平衡性。政治资本的不平衡性表现为牧区的土地集体所有权与土地国家所有权的不对称和牧区政策基本没有牧民的参与,牧民没有知情权、决策权和监督权。

关键词: 牧区  ;五种资本;不平衡性

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* 资助项目:中蒙国际合作项目联合资助(2007-2009

** 作者简介:盖志毅(1964-)男,内蒙古农业大学牧区经济管理学教授,博士生导师  Email:gaizhiyi@126.com

 

 Imbalance of Five Capital in Inner Mongolia Pastoral Areas

---Based on Field survey for 4 Villages in Inner Mongolia

 Gaizhiyi1,Fengjinglei1,Batbuyan2,Aorenqi3,Chenjiqun4

 1.Inner Mongolia Agriculture University,  Huhhot
    2.Institute of Sciences in Mongolia
    3.Institute of Social Sciences in Inner Mongolia ,Huhhot
   
4 Echoing Steppe Website   China   Beijing

 

Abstact: Capital and the change process of its actual shape has been the core areas of economics. Most scholars formed three consensus on capital. First, Capital will definitely bring upgrading value to its owner . This includes increase in wealth, status improved, the rise in reputation, and mental and physical health , etc. Second, The concept of capital is becoming richer .It has far exceeded the scope of the physical capital and includes human capital, cultural capital, political capital, and even social capital and natural capital. Third, There is a close relationship among the various types of capital .For example, Physical capital is the material basis of other capital and other capital would be achieved accumulation through the use of physical capital . All kinds of capitals constitute the basis of socio-economic development so that it is important for harmonious development to study on the status and relationship of all kinds of capitals of pastoral areas .The article is based on collate information of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia pastoral areas, and analyzed physical capital ,human capital, cultural capital, relation capital and political capital of the pastoral areas. So we can obtain the following conclusions: there is an imbalance of the five capital in Inner Mongolia Pastoral areas. The imbalance of Physical capital represent from two aspects: on the one hand , compared with other groups, the growth rate of income levels of herdsmen groups decreased and showed an imbalance .on the other hand , the polarization between pastoral households showed an imbalance within Herdsmen groups. The imbalance of human capital performance two aspects : Compared with the mainland residents, Inner Mongolia pastoralists have low education level, Stereotypes, weak market awareness, and weak ability to accept new knowledge .Compared with Mongolia Herders , Inner Mongolia pastoralists are older and have low education level .The imbalance of cultural capital not only performance cultural differences with the mainland one ,but also performance difference between aboriginal and immigrant.. The imbalance of relation capital performance that the herdsmen relation capital less than other groups, and the internal relation capital imbalances. The imbalance of political capital performance land property asymmetry and herdsmen have no right to information, decision-making power and supervisory power in process of decision-making  .

Key words:  Pastoral areas; Five capital; Imbalance

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* Foundation itemInternational cooperative project between China and Mongolia2007-2009

** Author ProfileGaizhiyi1964-Maleprofessor, supervisor of Ph, Email: gaizhiyi @126.com