中国、蒙古国草原(Steppe)对比考察项目   相关图片  论文集

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研究报告论文集 (中国部分)

 

 
 

蒙古高原针茅草原不同放牧方式下放牧梯度对植被特性的影响

——中蒙典型草原荒漠化比较植被考察报告

 

刘书润4,吉木色3 , 包秀霞1,易津1, 布德巴特4,敖特根托亚4吉格吉德苏仁2,

乌仁其木格1,萨娜斯琴1高娃3,乌兰图雅3,苏布达1,朝伦巴拉6,青格勒图6,铁虎6,

包学明7,金国7,桑巴7,哈斯巴特8,巴图艾力 9,额尔顿苏和10,嘎布亚太11

 

  1 内蒙古农业大学;2蒙古国家畜牧科学院;3内蒙古草原勘察设计院;

  4 蒙古绿金子牧场项目;5内蒙古师范大学;6内蒙古东苏旗畜牧局;7内蒙古东乌旗畜牧局;

  8 内蒙古东乌旗满都宝力格镇白音布日德嘎查;9内蒙古东苏旗白音图古日格嘎查;

  10 内蒙古东苏旗白音乌拉苏木额尔顿锡力嘎查;11内蒙古东乌旗乌里亚斯泰镇额尔顿乌拉嘎查

 

   要:不同的放牧方式放牧梯度对植被产生不同的影响,长期以来蒙古高原传统的四季游牧方式对蒙古高原的生态环境保护起到了主要的作用,近20年来内蒙古地区由于人口和牲畜的增加,多数地区采用了定居放牧和定居划区轮牧的方式,只有少数地区保持两季轮牧,四季游牧的放牧方式在内蒙古基本消失。本文通过对中蒙8个嘎查不同放牧梯度植被特性进行比较,探寻不同放牧方式的生态学效应。研究结果显示不同放牧方式间在放牧半径内植被特性差异极显著。其中四季游牧和两季轮牧方式放牧梯度半径植被生态学指标高于定居放牧;比较显示内蒙古东乌旗贝加尔针茅草原08-NMG-A-4嘎查样地的在总植物数、群落平均体积、平均盖度为最高;内蒙古东苏旗克氏针茅草原08-NMG-A-1样地在群落数、总植物数也较高,植物数量在各样地间差异较明显。蒙古国半荒漠草原原生群落小针茅(Stipa klemenzii)距离比明显高于内蒙古半荒漠草原;07-MG-A-308-MG-A-2典型草原原生群落克氏针茅(Stipa krylovii)距离比较低,这可能与选择的样地和调查样线数量有关。主要植物表现率大小排序上能看出,中蒙2个半荒漠草原中,内蒙古原生植物小针茅(Stipa klemenzii)表现率为6.53%,蒙古国为16.93%;这说明内蒙古半荒漠草原原生群落退化较严重。中蒙5个嘎查典型草原中,08-MG-A-2原生植物克氏针茅(Stipa krylovii)表现率也较低外,其他2个嘎查原生植物表现率均高于内蒙古;08-NMG-A-4贝加尔针茅草原原生群落仍然占草原主导地位。中蒙半荒漠草原间草场退化程度较明显,而中蒙典型草原间草场退化程度无显著差异。植物生活型、水分生态型、区系地理成分组成能看出,07-NMG-B-108-MG-A-3嘎查一年生草本植物表现率高于多年生植物表现率外,其他嘎查内均多年生植物表现率高于一年生草本植物,其中08-NMG-A-4嘎查多年生植物表现率为最高;蒙古东方省玛塔图苏木一年生植物表现率较高原因是与当时降雨量有关。07-NMG-B-108-NMG-A-108-NMG-A-4样地旱生、中旱生植物表现率较高,说明植物旱生化程度较高。08-MG-A-3广布种植物表现率最高的可能原因是与植物生活型有关,除07-NMG-A-4外内蒙古的其他3个嘎查世界种,泛北极,古北极种植物表现率也较高。本论文中,中蒙半荒漠草原之间草场退化程度较明显,而中蒙典型草原之间草场退化程度无显著差异,贝加尔针茅草甸草原由于草地类型的不同,不能进行对比分析。总体分析结果表明长期进行定居放牧会对植被产生较大的生态损伤。

关键词:蒙古高原;针茅草原;放牧梯度;植被特征

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基金项目: 中蒙国际合作项目联合资助(2007-2009

** 作者简介:刘书润(1938-)男,内蒙古师范大学生态学教授,主要从事草原生态和环境保护研究。

 

Effects of Herding Gradient on Vegetation Characteristics of
stipa
Grassland in Mongolian Plateau

                  — Investigation Report of Desertification in Typical Steppe between China and Mongolia

Liushurun4, Jimuse3, Baoxiuxia1,Yijin1, Jigjidsuren2,Budebater5,Aotegentuya5,Wurenqimuge1,

Sanasiqin1,Gaowa3,Wulatuya3,Subuda1,Chaolunbala6,Qinggeletu6,Tiehu6,Baoxueming7,

Jinguo7,Sangba7,Hasibater8,Batuaili9,Erdunsuhe10,Gabuyatai11

1. Inner Mongolia Agriculture University, Huhhot;
2.Institute of Animal Husbandry in Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar;
3. Institute of Grassland Survey and Design in Inner Mongolia,Huhhot;
4 Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot;
5.”Green gold project” in Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar;
6. Animal Husbandry Bureau of Eastern Sunite Banner in Inner Mongolia;
7. Animal Husbandry Bureau of Eastern Wuzhumuqin Banner in Inner Mongolia;
8.Baiyinburide Village of Mndubaolige Countryside in Eastern Wuzhumuqin Banner, Inner Mongolia;
9.Baiyintugurige Village of Saihangaobi Countryside in Eastern Sunite Banner, Inner Mongolia;
10.Erdunxili Village of Baiyinwula Countryside in Eastern Sunite Banner, Inner Mongolia;
11.Erdunwula Village of Wuliyasitai Countryside in Eastern Wuzhumuqin Banner, Inner Mongolia

Abstract: Herding gradient can effect vegetation characteristics. Long-term traditional nomadic grazing of Mongolian plateau played the protection of ecological environment. Because population and livestock in inner Mongolia were increased, it lead to herdsman was going settled grazing, only few areas herdsman was adopted two season rotational grazing over the past 20 years. Four seasons nomadic grazing is basically disappeared in

Inner Mongolia. Compare of vegetation characteristics under herding gradient among the eight villages in Mongolian plateau to explore ecology effect under herding gradient. The result showed that vegetation characteristics are significant differences in the grazing circle. Vegetation characteristics in four season nomadic grazing and two season rotational grazing are higher than settled grazing. 08-NMG-A-4 plant species, community volume, coverage are the highest, 08-NMG-A-1 community quantity, plant species are higher. Distant ratio of Stipa klemenzii community in Semi-desert steppe of Mongolia is higher than Inner Mongolia, distant ratio of Stipa krylovii community in 07-MG-A-3 and 08-MG-A-2 typical steppe is lower. It may relate to choice of sample and line quantity. Stipa klemenzii in semi-desert steppe expressive ratio in Inner Mongolia is 6.53%, Mongolia is 16.93%. It explain that primary community and plant are serious degradation in Inner Mongolia. 07-MG-A-3 and 08-MG-A-3 Stipa krylovii expressive ratio is higher than Inner Mongolia, but 08-NMG-A-4 primary community still is a dominant in Stipa baicalensis steppe. Grassland degradation degree is evidence in Semi-desert steppe and it is not significant differences in typical steppe between China and Mongolia. perennial expressive ratio of 08-NMG-A-4 is the highest among eight villages. 08-MG-A-3 annual expressive ratio is higher, it is related to precipitation. Plant xerophilization degree of 07-NMG-B-1,08-NMG-A-1 and 08-NMG-A-4 is higher, dispersed species of four villages in Inner Mongolia are more than Mongolia, it explain that grassland degeneration degree in Inner Mongolia is a serious. Because Inner Mongolia adopted long term settled grazing, it caused to ecological damage.

Keywords: Mongolian plateau; stipa grassland; Herding gradient; Vegetation characteristics

 

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* foundation itemInternational cooperative project between China and Mongolia2007-2009

** Author ProfileLiu shurun1938-maleprofessor.