中国、蒙古国草原(Steppe)对比考察项目   相关图片  论文集

 主页-中文主页- 中蒙项目 第一期

 

2009中蒙国际合作项目乌兰巴托双边会议    

研究报告论文集 (中国部分)   

 

 
 


不同放牧方式对蒙古高原半荒漠草原植被特性的影响

——中蒙典型草原荒漠化比较植被考察报告

乌仁其木格1包秀霞1 易津1 刘书润2 吉木色3

吉格吉德苏仁4 布德巴特4高娃3 乌兰图雅3

1内蒙古农业大学,2,内蒙古师范大学,3内蒙古草原勘察设计院,4,蒙古国畜牧科学院(乌兰巴托 蒙古国)

 

摘要:蒙古高原小针茅(Stipa klemenzii)半荒漠草原植被特性对比研究表明内蒙古定居与蒙古四季游牧方式间植被特性差异除植物种数外其它特性均达到显著或极显著水平;共有五个群落特性对比研究表明:植被群落平均重要值、多年生和一年生植物比例在五个群落中的定居与四季游牧间均达到显著或极显著水平;其中原生植被小针茅+杂类草群落内蒙古定居放牧较蒙古四季游牧退化显著;建群种小针茅(Stipa klemenzii)、多根葱(Allium polyrhizum)各指标蒙古四季游牧均高于内蒙古定居放牧,频度差异显著,重要值差异极显著;伴生种阿氏旋花(Convolvulus ammannii)、猪毛菜(Salsola collina)各指标蒙古四季游牧均低于内蒙古定居放牧,各指标间差异均达到极显著水平。对比研究结果表明内蒙古定居放牧方式地区小针茅草原已经严重退化,植被次生演替中一年生猪毛菜和杂类草比例明显增加,小针茅(Stipa klemenzii)已经退出主体位置,定居放牧植被生产力显著降低。内蒙古以牧户为单位的定居放牧方式,在定居点周围牲畜采食和践踏严重,不利于定居点周围草原植被休养恢复,是产生草地荒漠化的重要原因之一,而蒙古采用集体四季游牧,草地有恢复生长的时期,符合植被保护的生态学原理,利于草原保护,内蒙古地区放牧方式的改造势在必行。鉴于近年内蒙古地区在荒漠草原地区实施围封转移和休牧政策,植被群落总盖度、总产量方面均高于蒙古国四季游牧,而且二者在植物种数量方面差异不显著,说明内蒙古荒漠化草地植被已经开始恢复。

关键词:蒙古高原,半荒漠草原,放牧方式,植被特性

 

Effects of Vegetation Characteristics Under Different Grazing

on Semi-desert Steppe in Mongolian Plateau

     Investigation Report of Desertification in Typical Steppe between China and Mongolia

Wurenqimuge 1, Xiuxia Bao1, Jin Yi1, Shurun Liu 2, Jimuse3,
Jigejidesuren,Budebateer4, Gao Wa 3, Wulantuya3

1 College of Agriculture ,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot  010019
                       
2 Inner Mongolia Normal University , Huhhot  010020
                       
3 Institute of Inner Mongolia Grassland Exploration Survey and Design, Huhhot  010051
                       
4 Mongolia Academy of Animal Husbandry, Wulanbatuo, Mongolia

 

Abstract: Comparatively Study on vegetation characteristics of Stipa klemenzii semi-desert steppe under different grazing in Mongolian Plateau. Results showed that except for plant quantity others vegetation characteristics was significant levels in settled and four season nomadic grazing. Four community expressive ratioperennial and annual ratio in different grazing were significant or very significant level. Stipa klemenzii+mixed grass community in Inner Mongolia was significantly degraded. Stipa klemenzii and Allium polyrhizum indicators order was four season nomadicsettled grazing. Frequency was significant level(P <0.05), important value and expressive ratio were significant level(P <0.01).Convolvulus ammannii and Salsola collina indicators order were settled grazingfour season nomadic grazing. Indicators were significant level(P <0.01). Stipa klemenzii steppe was very degraded in Inner Mongolia, annual grass ratio increased, vegetation productivity was significantly reduced. Livestock feed and trampled were serious in Settlement surrounding, it is not conducive to restoration of grassland vegetation and  grassland desertification is one of the important reasons. Four season nomadic grazing was consistent with the ecology principle and conductive to grassland protection in Mongolia. In recent years, Inner Mongolia carried out enclosed transfer and non-grazing policy, community coverage and yield were higher than Mongolia.

Plant quantity was no significant difference, Inner Mongolia grassland vegetation has already begun to restoration.

Key words: Mongolian plateau, Semi-desert steppe, Grazing, Vegetation characteristics